What is in this article?:
- Arizona Veg IPM: aphids, disease development, weed emergence
- Significance of the environment on disease development
- Weed emergence with pre-emergent herbicides
- Proper identification of winged aphid species in desert-grown leafy vegetables is important for cost-effective pest management.
- This time of year is when winged (alate) aphids are observed on desert lettuce and cole crops.
- Three ingredients required to develop most plant diseases - susceptible host, a pathogen capable of infecting the host, and a favorable environment;
- Not all pre-emergent herbicides kill weeds before emergence.
Significance of the environment on disease development
By Mike Matheron, UA Extension Plant Pathologist
The three ingredients required for the development of most plant diseases include a susceptible host, a pathogen capable of infecting that host, and a favorable environment. Two components of the environment, temperature and moisture, are critical factors affecting the development and severity of diseases caused by bacterial and fungal pathogens.
A plant disease caused by the pathogens will not occur if the temperature and/or moisture levels prohibit the pathogen from interacting with the host to cause disease. This explains why some diseases only appear on a crop during particular times during the growing season.
As an example, Fusarium wilt on lettuce in the desert is found primarily during the fall, but not during the winter months, as soil temperatures in the fall (not the winter) favor the growth of the pathogen and disease development.
Also, downy mildew on winter vegetables including lettuce, cruciferous crops, onions, and spinach is usually a concern in the winter and early spring, but only when periods of leaf wetness caused by rainfall and dew are present. Periods of high humidity and leaf wetness are essential for downy mildew pathogens to grow, proliferate, and cause disease.
The generally dry conditions prevalent in the desert benefit growers by restricting foliar diseases caused by bacteria and many fungi that flourish in regions receiving abundant rainfall. Growers cannot control the weather but can control irrigation practices, which in some cases can influence the severity of vegetable crop diseases.
For example, the severity of Sclerotinia drop on lettuce can be increased by over-irrigation especially if this results in wetting of the bed top. Also, during periods of rainfall and high humidity, sprinkler irrigation can extend the duration of high foliar moisture and increase the severity of downy mildew.
Contact Matheron: (928) 726-6856 or firstname.lastname@example.org.