What is in this article?:
- Pecan orchard carries storied history
- Nut analysis
- Pecan producers are looking toward harvest time. They are also looking forward to a good per-pound price for their product again this year, although yields are likely to be smaller due to the drought. Some of New Mexico's oldest pecan trees are found at an old orchard on the New Mexico State University campus.
Last year, Heerema sent off a collection of fresh nuts from the orchard's largest and oldest-looking trees to L.J. Grauke of the USDA Agricultural Research Service's Pecan Breeding and Genetics program.
In a recent email to Heerema, Grauke reported some "very tentative" identifications based on the physical characteristics of the nuts. Of the nearly 20 suspected varieties, five cultivars (San Saba, Stuart, Success, Van Deman and Western) did match the 1916 Garcia-Fite list, but Grauke said it appeared that most of the cultivars "date from the mid-20th century."
The range of ages and varieties is the result of generations of NMSU pecan researchers having had projects here, among them Roy Harper, Darrell Sullivan and Roy Nakayama.
Geno Picchioni, NMSU horticulture professor, reports a telephone conversation he had with Darrell Sullivan in 1999, 17 years after the latter retired. Sullivan reported to him that Harper had grafted and top-worked many of the existing trees in that orchard.
According to John Mexal, also a professor of horticulture, Sullivan's work included fertilizer work on pecans, while Nakayama was more exclusively focused on breeding.
And Esteban Herrera, retired NMSU Extension horticulturalist, said it was Nakayama's work on pecans at the science center in the early 1970s that led to the registration of the pecan cultivar "Salopek."
Pecan varieties released by NMSU in 1967 and 1983 are named after Harper and Sullivan, respectively, attesting to the importance of their work.
The orchard's value for future research is questionable.
"This orchard is very different from the way standard commercial orchards are set up today, and as such, the main value of this orchard really is its historical value, the fact that it was probably planted by Dr. Garcia himself," Heerema says. "But there may actually be some valuable genetic resources within this orchard.
"We don't know what the cultivars are of each of these trees, but we do know that there is a good deal of diversity, in terms of which trees are here. Some of these are probably very common cultivars, but some of them may be very rare cultivars, some of them may be seedling trees, some of them may be cultivars which are extinct elsewhere. So there may actually be some very interesting genetic resources, possibly for use in breeding programs in the future."
In addition to appreciating the heritage value of the orchard, Heerema also brings classes out to give them some first-hand knowledge of varietal differences and of some of the disease challenges pecan trees face in New Mexico.
NMSU's pecan research program has spread out to several other locations. In the Mesilla Valley, Heerema is doing research in an established 11-acre orchard and an additional 20 acres of recently planted pecans at the Leyendecker Plant Science Research Center south of Las Cruces. NMSU currently has more than 60 total acres of pecans for research purposes at Leyendecker and at its agricultural science centers in Los Lunas and Artesia. The inventory includes more than 3,000 young seedlings donated over the past two years by Linwood Nursery of La Grange, Calif.
Meanwhile, back at the old Fabian Garcia Science Center orchard, the orderly rows of trees provide a nice park-like feature for the adjoining residential neighborhood. The nuts will be harvested and sold as soon as they are ready, according to farm manager Mark Pacheco. Whatever the orchard's future research value may be, many of its trees are still producing a crop of tasty nuts.