What is in this article?:
- Aging pistachio trees may need new harvesting system
- Harvest efficiency
- UC researchers experimenting on pistachios with modified olive harvester head.
- Improved harvesting machinery may preclude orchard replacements.
A direct canopy contact harvester head moves in on a pistachio tree in a Paramount Farming Company orchard west of Wasco, Calif.
Mechanical pruning to control canopy height improved harvest efficiency since shakers are more efficient removing nuts closes to the trunk, said Ferguson. This practice has a bonus of helping control alternate bearing in pistachios, added Ferguson. Ferguson says it became obvious that managing the trees for different harvesting systems would become critical in changing harvesting techniques. Growers looking ahead to use the direct canopy harvester may look at closer tree spacing in more of a hedgerow to facilitate the alternative picking head as trees mature, she said.
Ferguson, UC Davis engineers John Miles and Jed Roach and harvest crews from Paramount Farms this fall evaluated the direct contact harvesting head in 10-year old trees were in full production in a moderate “on” year for pistachios.
Ferguson said Chevron also has contributed to the technology by sponsoring development of a vibrating harvesting head to harvest the biodiesel crop jatropha. Ferguson said their engineer allowed her to adapt the technology for pistachios. The head for this trial, mounted on a Bobcat, was developed by UC engineer Uriel Rosa.
The vibrating rubber-clad fiberglass rods rake through the branches as the head moves across each tree. There are 12 rods in each row. The head move along the sides of the trees and penetrate the canopy toward the tree centers. In the trial this fall the machine was harvesting 36 trees every 20 minutes. Miles said the harvester is capable of moving faster.
While promising, Miles acknowledged more design work is necessary because some rods broke when they hit larger branches. Ferguson was also closely checking the small branches that were removed evaluate the number of fruit buds — next year’s pistachio crop — that were lost.
Although all the data has not been analyzed, Ferguson said, it looks as if the experimental head is consistent with the higher efficiency found during the 2010 trial. Gavin Nielsen of Erick Nielsen Enterprises said the company has been collaborating with Gold Country Hydraulics on new mechanical harvest technology.
“Our focus is to find inexpensive solutions to this challenging problem,” said Nielsen.
Both Paramount and the California Pistachio Research Board (CPRB) have supported this research, Ferguson said.
Bob Klein, manager of CPRB, said this marks the second year the board has funded research for this vital component of the industry.