What is in this article?:
- New strain of citrus disease in Texas
- New strain first found in Brazil
- New strain of citrus disease discovered in Valley.
- New strain of citrus greening disease of concern to Lower Rio Grande Valley growers but much remains to learn.
- Research and management efforts are ongoing.
New strain first found in Brazil
The new strain was initially discovered in Brazil in 2005, but the strain of Liberibacter americanus found in Texas doesn’t appear to have come from South America.
“At this point we are not certain how this strain arrived in the Valley,” da Graca said. “But we have been collecting leaves from plants in the area where the psyllid carrying the new variety was found—bags and bags of leaves in fact—and we may know something more in a week or so. But so far the strain has not been detected in plant material, only in the psyllid, or carrier.”
Dr. da Graca warned it is too early to speculate about the impact of the discovery. In Brazil, the americanus strain, like Liberibacter africanus, favors cooler weather and is not very resistant to heat as is the Asian strain. He says in Brazil the American strain virtually becomes dormant when summer arrives and returns with the arrival of the cooler season. But since the strain discovered in Texas is slightly different than the americanus strain in Brazil, “we aren’t certain what to expect.”
“It’s possible this may be the only psyllid that will be trapped to indicate presence of the new strain in the Valley; we are just too early on to know very much about what to expect until we do more research,” he said.
He also said the americanus strain, until now, has only been found in Brazil. But one instance of discovery in China was initially reported a couple of years ago, but subsequent testing failed to confirm the strain and since then, no other reports of americanus has surfaced in China.
“The same thing could happen here in Texas.” he said.
As far as the latest HLB update in the Valley is concerned, trees infected with HLB have been destroyed, an aggressive trapping program is ongoing, and so far damages from the disease have been limited. In addition, new research in addressing methods to fight the spread of the disease is promising.
“New research involving psyllid predators, a wasp from Pakistan, is extremely promising and we have been working on a fungus that also shows some promise at fighting the spread of the disease,” da Graca reports.
He said tests with wasp predators indicate they may contribute up to a 70 percent success rate in controlling psyllid populations and is hopeful research with a fungus will add to control efforts in the future.
“That doesn’t give us 100 percent control, which we would like to have, but any help is good when it comes to managing the spread of the disease,” he said.
The Florida citrus industry has suffered an estimated $4 billion in losses over the last five production years and an estimated 6,611 lost jobs during the same period. Losses in Texas have been greatly minimized by early detection efforts and an aggressive voluntary spraying program by Valley citrus producers even before the disease was discovered last year.