What is in this article?:
- Spotted wing drosophila in Santa Maria strawberries
- Origin and distribution
- SWD has become a potential concern for strawberries following its damage to cherries, blackberries, raspberries, and blueberries in coastal California.
Origin and distribution
It is traditionally known to be a pest in Asia, but it is now reported in Neo Tropics, North America, and Europe. In the US, it has been found in Hawaii, Washington, Oregon, California, and Florida.
Host range: They generally infest thin-skinned fruit and prefer temperate climate. Host range includes apple, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, dogwood, grape, mulberry, peach, persimmons, plum, raspberry, and strawberry.
Biology: SWD prefer 68-86 oF and overwinter as adults. Various sources suggested 5-10 generations per year. According to Kanzawa (1939) egg laying starts in spring and can last for 10-59 days. Females lay an average of 384 eggs at 7-16 per day. Eggs hatch in 2-72 hours and larval stage lasts for 3-13 days. Pupation takes place inside the fruit or in the soil and lasts for 3-15 days. Life cycle takes anywhere from 21-25 days at 59 oF to 7 days at 82 oF.
Damage: Other fruit flies usually infest overripe and fallen fruit, but SWD infests fresh fruit because of its powerful ovipositor. Adults feed on fallen fruit but lay their eggs under the skin of intact fruit. Softening and collapse of the tissue results from larval feeding inside the fruit. Oviposition holes can be seen on the fruit with close observation. In addition to the direct damage, SWD makes the infested fruit vulnerable to other pests and diseases. Monitoring SWD is very important to avoid harvesting and marketing infested berries.
Calabria G., J. Máca, G. Bächli, L. Serra and M. Pascual. 2012. First records of the potential pest species Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Europe. J. Appl. Entomol. 136:139-147.
Kanzawa, T. 1939. Studies on Drosophila suzukii Mats. 49 pp. (http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/19410501073.html;jsessionid=81E9221496390100F7C13052E18F8079)