• Heavy sweating

• Extreme weakness or fatigue

• Dizziness, confusion

• Nausea

• Clammy, moist skin

• Pale or flushed complexion

• Muscle cramps

• Slightly elevated body temperature

• Fast and shallow breathing

First aid for heat exhaustion includes:

• Rest in a cool, shaded or air-conditioned area.

• Drink plenty of water or other cool, nonalcoholic beverages.

• Take a cool shower, bath, or sponge bath.

Then there’s heat syncope, “a fainting (syncope) episode or dizziness that usually occurs with prolonged standing or sudden rising from a sitting or lying position. Factors that may contribute to heat syncope include dehydration and lack of acclimatization.”

Symptoms include: Light-headedness, dizziness, fainting. First aid includes: Sit or lie down in a cool place when symptoms begin. Slowly drink water, clear juice, or a sports beverage.

Other heat-related illnesses include heat cramps and heat rash.

Heat cramps may affect workers who sweat a lot during strenuous activity, which depletes salt and moisture levels. Low salt levels in muscles cause painful cramps. Heat cramps may be a symptom of heat exhaustion, too. Symptoms include muscle pain or spasms usually in the abdomen, arms, or legs.

Workers with heat cramps should stop activity, sit in a cool place and drink clear juice or a sports beverage. They should not return to strenuous work for several hours after the cramps subside. Further exertion may lead to heat exhaustion or heat stroke.

Also, if you or a worker have a heart problem, are on a low-sodium diet or if the cramps do not subside within an hour, NIOSH recommends seeking medical attention.

Heat rash, a skin irritation caused by excessive sweating during hot, humid weather, looks like a red cluster of pimples or small blisters and is more likely to occur on the neck and upper chest, in the groin, under the breasts, and in elbow creases.

Responses should include:working in cooler, less humid environments when possible, keeping the affected area dry and using dusting powder.