What is in this article?:
- Fire a key to wildlife management
- Wildlife benefits
- Fire has always been a natural part of our ecosystem. The earliest known Native Americans burned the land as they moved around to create fresh grazing and new browse for wildlife.
As a wildlife biologist one of the main questions I get is: What is the most important rule in managing for wildlife -- any wildlife, deer, turkey, or quail?
- First, habitat management.
- Second, population control.
- Third, supplemental feeding by food plots.
Often, they then ask about the most important part of habitat management. I like to respond caveman-style, “FIRE GOOD!”
Fire has always been a natural part of our ecosystem. The earliest known Native Americans burned the land as they moved around to create fresh grazing and new browse for wildlife.
For decades, foresters and land managers used prescribed burns to control woody trash buildup (leaves, sticks, grass), stimulate growth of desirable woody species, and control both undesirable woody species and disease.
“Prescribed burns” are controlled fires using tools such as trained personnel, equipment, fire lanes, wind, moisture, backfires and common sense. Unfortunately, in the last 20 years, or so, prescribed burns have stopped due to liability issues, housing expansion into rural areas and lack of knowledge of the benefits of prescribed fires.
A good example are wildfires out West that have been burning on and off for thousands of years. These fires were started by lighting strikes or Native Americans and helped control underbrush and burned off excess dead woody fuel. As the population expanded into the rural areas, these natural fires and prescribed fires were stopped. Over the years, the understory and woody trash built up and, combined with drought years, created an explosive landscape. All of the sudden million-dollar houses and lives are lost and people question how it could happen.
Most burning occurs mid-February to mid-March, depending on weather. I like to be through burning by the start of turkey season. Too early of a burn will reduce late-season browse and forbs for deer when little else is available until spring green-up. The cool air temperatures and low winds allow for a slower control burn that causes little damage to timber.
Later burns around spring green-up will help control woody understory such as sweet gum and other undesirable species.
Different types of forest can be prescribe-burned in different ways. Pine forests over 15 years of age are the easiest to burn due to their uniform age and natural ability to tolerate fire at low- to mid-intensity heat with low fuel moisture present. Mature pines can withstand mid-heat to occasional high heat that will help control unwanted hardwoods.
Mixed pine hardwoods can be prescribe-burned at low heat or slow burn when low wind and mid-range fuel moisture are present. Hardwoods are normally not prescribe-burned but thinned instead.
If burning is necessary to stimulate browse and forbs production, it must be done under very low wind conditions and as slowly as possible with moderate fuel moisture present -- or, a few days after a rain. With too much fuel moisture, fire will not move; with no moisture, fire will move too fast and hot.
If desirable hardwoods are present in timber stands, I like to burn at night when little wind is present and cooler temperatures are present. Night burning allows you to see hot spots better and slow down the burn.
In areas such as the Delta or pastures, where there is not a lot of timber to burn or undesirable hardwoods present, you can burn along fence or turn rows and ditches. Sometimes these area types are the only habitat available for wildlife such as deer and quail and the only way to manage them is by burning.
Some areas may have several small thickets scattered around that will benefit from burning. Burning these areas on a three-year rotation will keep the browse, forbs and seed producers under the 3-foot range, which allows wildlife to reach them and keep them young and tasty. Areas that cannot be burned due to liability reasons or other reasons can be clipped to stimulate new growth and control unwanted woody species.
Note: The clipping method will be covered in more depth in a future article.