Young fruit clusters are highly susceptible to all major diseases, including downy mildew, powdery mildew, black rot, Phomopsis and anthracnose.

If prolonged cool, wet weather prevails during bloom, Botrytis can also gain a foothold in clusters of susceptible varieties by promoting fungal growth on senescent flower parts. However, with continued dry, warm conditions, it is unlikely that bloom will be an important time for Botrytis infection. Black rot and Phomopsis lesions have been seen in the last couple of weeks and indicate that the pathogens are active. Grape anthracnose symptoms are also visible on shoots, leaves and cluster stems of susceptible varieties. The first powdery mildew colonies have been seen on unsprayed Chardonnay vines in Clarksville, Mich. Powdery mildew has also been spotted near Traverse City, Mich., but this report is still being confirmed. Downy mildew so far has only been seen in low-lying wild grapes, which often show symptoms at least a week before cultivated grapes. However, it has been relatively dry, so downy mildew development may be a bit late this year. Careful scouting is advised on a weekly basis.

It is possible to have powdery mildew fruit infection without seeing any foliar infections, so protect the fruit of susceptible cultivars even if no powdery mildew has been seen on the leaves. Often, downy mildew infections of flower clusters in cv. Chancellor are seen before leaf infections as well. In 2009, we first observed downy mildew in Chancellor in Fennville, Mich., during the first week of June and in 2010 during the second week of June. Growers are strongly advised to protect flower and fruit clusters from infection by all these pathogens using effective fungicides. The risk of infection is especially high if we have multiple rain events and moderate to high temperatures.

In general, aim to protect the clusters from the major diseases from immediate pre-bloom until four to five weeks after bloom. As the berries develop, they become naturally resistant to black rot, downy mildew and powdery mildew and the need for protection diminishes after the susceptible period ends. This happens quite rapidly for downy mildew (two to three weeks after bloom), whereas for powdery mildew it is about four weeks after bloom. Concord grapes become resistant to black rot at four to five weeks after bloom, but some wine grape varieties may remain susceptible to black rot for up to eight weeks post bloom. However, be aware that the cluster stem (rachis) and berry stems can remain susceptible longer than the berries in most cases. The only disease to which berries remain susceptible throughout their development is Phomopsis, but the risk of infection diminishes after bunch closure because inoculum levels drop off then. Botrytis is just the opposite in that berries actually become more susceptible as they get closer to harvest, especially in tight-clustered varieties.

Powdery mildew

Sterol inhibitor (e.g., Elite, Rally, Procure, etc.) and strobilurin (e.g., Sovran, Flint, Abound, Pristine) fungicides have the ability to cure early infections, but will not eliminate colonies that are already established. JMS Stylet Oil and potassium bicarbonate fungicides (Kaligreen, Armicarb, MilStop) can be used to eradicate visible powdery mildew colonies. If you use eradicants, make sure that coverage is thorough (use sufficient spray volume), as only those colonies contacted by the fungicide will be killed. Since strobilurin-resistant powdery mildew isolates have been found in Michigan (mostly in MSU experimental vineyards and wine grape vineyards with a history of strobilurin use) and we have circumstantial evidence for sterol inhibitor (SI) resistance, we recommend adding a protectant fungicide like Sulfur or Ziram to the tank-mix when using either type of fungicide. Sulfur is the most cost-effective option for non-sulfur sensitive grape cultivars.

(For more, see: Wine grape season shaping up for powdery mildew)

Over the past two years, we have noticed that Ziram as a tank-mix partner did improve control of powdery mildew in a spray program on the research stations where we have strobilurin resistance. Also, alternate fungicides with different modes of action, for example Sulfur, Quintec, Vivando, Luna Experience, Endura, Serenade, Sonata or Regalia. Revus Top is a new fungicide for powdery and downy mildew and black rot control in grapes. However, the ingredient that is active against powdery mildew is difenoconazole, which belongs to the sterol inhibitor class. This fungicide is phytotoxic on Concord and Noiret grapes, so do not use on these cultivars. Inspire Super also contains difenoconazole. Luna Experience is a new fungicide for control of powdery mildew, black rot, Phomopsis and anthracnose.