What is in this article?:
- What has gone wrong with U.S. agriculture policy?
- Safety net abandonment
- Since the 1985 farm bill and especially since 1996’s Freedom to Farm, commodity programs have moved away from safety net and price stabilizing concepts. Major policy instruments designed to provide a safety net have been eliminated or dismantled.
- The whole notion of commodity programs and its attendant safety net concept has been flipped so it is now upside down. We have come the point—contrary to the our understanding of the purpose of commodity programs—that making payments when they are not needed is just fine.
Safety net abandonment
Since the 1985 farm bill and especially since 1996’s Freedom to Farm, commodity programs have moved away from safety net and price stabilizing concepts. Major policy instruments designed to provide a safety net have been eliminated or dismantled. Today there are no price floors, no stabilizing reserves, or other supply management instruments.
The movement away from these policies has been partially based on the belief that grain exports make price-stabilizing policies unnecessary. It is argued that reasonably set price supports, reserve programs and setasides just get in the way. So the argument goes, just replace these programs with payments, if you must do something.
But if world trade were perfectly free, it is stated or implied, US crop agriculture’s prosperity would be guaranteed and payments too could be eliminated.
Aside from what has happened in policy direction since the 1985 and 1996 farm bills, what is happening now? To us the whole notion of commodity programs and its attendant safety net concept has been flipped so it is now upside down. We have come the point—contrary to the our understanding of the purpose of commodity programs—that making payments when they are not needed is just fine.
To see how incredible this all is, consider the following. How do you think Congress and the agricultural establishment would react if loan rate levels were somehow raised to $1.04 per pound for cotton (85 percent of $1.23), $5.11 per bushel for corn (85 percent of $6.01), and $11.39 for soybeans (85 percent of $13.40) at an annual cost of, say, $8 billion for the 8 program crops? Then add a $5 billion direct payment gift on top of that. The total would come to some $14 billion taken from the US Treasury at a time when market prices are well above the cost of production.
No, we are not off our rocker. This year’s crop revenue insurance makes those “price equivalents” available to farmers—at least those who are willing to pay “their” part of the premium. US taxpayers are underwriting a guarantee of record profits to farmers at a time of 9 percent unemployment and when people are losing their homes. Plus, there is the $5 billion in direct payments.
Direct payments are paid even though prices are well north of all costs. They are an embarrassment whether it is in rural cafes or talking to our city cousins. And, there are demands to continue them in the next farm bill. Why? Because otherwise there would be no “baseline” money for farm programs. It is not because they make sense as a safety net, they don’t, of course. They are totally inadequate when prices collapse.
Much of the agricultural establishment, especially insurance companies and their agents, prefers the revenue insurance products. But as is clearly seen, these products protect farmers’ “pure” profits when prices are really high even though it costs tens of billions to do so. But here is the kicker. When, not if, prices fall and remain below the cost of production, these revenue insurance products guarantee a percentage of those below-cost prices. In fact, if market prices fell below variable costs, revenue insurance would pay a percentage of the below-variable-cost prices.
This flipping of the safety net makes no sense to us and likely will further erode public good well that could be desperately needed in the future.