• Long term RFS2 requirements can be achieved largely with ethanol if automakers honor and expand their commitments to ramp up production of FFVs, and if blender pumps are installed at roughly one-third of the nation's retail service stations.

• Even if E15 is eventually used in all conventional vehicles (non-FFVs), meeting long term RFS2 requirements with ethanol will necessitate a substantial increase in the availability and use of "mid-level" ethanol blends.

• Without the commitment of the "Detroit Three" automakers to ensure that 50 percent of the vehicles they produce in 2012 and subsequent years are FFVs, it would not be possible to meet long term RFS2 requirements using mostly ethanol.

• Even with the 50 percent FFV production commitment by the "Detroit Three," FFVs would need to refuel with E85 essentially three-quarters of the time or E56 all of the time by 2022. This highlights the need for an expanded commitment to FFV production from all automakers.

• If all vehicles sold in 2015 and subsequent years are FFVs, and if E15 is used in all non-FFVs, the average fuel blend consumed in FFVs will need to contain 29 percent ethanol by volume (E29) in order to satisfy the 2022 RFS2 requirements with mostly ethanol. Incidentally, E30 is one of the most common and popular blends dispensed from blender pumps today.

• If the RFS2 is to be met predominantly with ethanol, blender pumps will need to be installed at a minimum of 53,000 service stations. This represents roughly 33 percent of service stations in the country. Efforts to install blender pumps should focus on areas with the highest levels of vehicle miles traveled per service station.