"There’s no way I can put a positive spin on what’s coming out of Washington," Outlaw said.

The cuts could also pressure lending, he noted.

"You don’t take less money and make everybody better off," he said. "This is real life – they are going to make cuts. No question about it."

Meanwhile, Dr. Jerry Hatfield, laboratory director and supervisory plant physiologist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, discussed ongoing research efforts in studying current climate change patterns. He said farmers and ranchers should plan for more fluctuations of extreme dry to wet weather patterns in the future.

"We will see an increase variance in precipitation in which we’re going to be experiencing longer periods of dry weather interspersed by longer periods of wet (weather)," he said. "It’s going to be a real challenge for agriculture on how to cope with this as we put together this puzzle."

Aside from increases in the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere and temperature changes, Hatfield said there also has been an increase in water vapor.

"We’ve become much more humid and that's also affected temperatures," he said.

He said nighttime temperatures have been overlooked when studying the changes in the atmosphere. "These increases in mean temperatures are due mostly to nighttime temperatures than daytime temperatures. In the last 20 years, increased nighttime temperatures changed very dramatically."

Another area that hasn't been addressed in examining the effects of climate change has been plant physiology and nighttime temperatures, he said.

"It's one of the pieces of the puzzle that has been overlooked. We tend to look from a climatic view and not a plant physiological view."

Higher nighttime temperatures will affect reproductive development "because of the sensitivity of pollen survival to temperature."

"Increases in nighttime temperatures will have a large impact on both vegetative and reproductive growth," he said. "Yields will be impacted because of shortened reproductive periods. Occurrences of higher temperatures will cause faster phonological development."

Hatfield noted a few indirect impacts of climate change, which include more weed infestations. "Weeds love CO2 (carbon dioxide) even more and they are showing positive response to rising CO2 concentrations," he said.

Insects and diseases also increase with more favorable environments over the winter and more humid conditions during the growing season, Hatfield said.

"Climate change will affect agriculture," he said. "Agriculture has adapted to climate change in the past and will again in response to long-term trends. These are some major challenges. These aren’t meant to scare you, it's how we adapt to these scenarios. We need to figure out how to build some resilience in our cropping systems to handle that."