Water conservation and irrigation efficiency were sorely tested. With limited rainfall, irrigation provides supplemental water to Southern Plains cotton producers and last year they relied on irrigation for virtually every drop of water the crop got.

“This has been the worst drought in history,” Holladay says. “We had to try all season to keep the system maintained and up to date to insure efficiency. We monitored wells several times a day to make certain we weren’t damaging the pumps.”

Water levels fluctuated quite a bit during the summer. “Maintenance was a big concern, since we had to put the water where it would do the most good.”

He has 1,200 acres under center pivot irrigation and uses wobbler nozzles to get efficient distribution. “We don’t use drag hoses,” he says. “Most of our fields are contoured and circle rows don’t work as well.”

He occasionally plants peanuts in rotation and says a peanut crop also does better with straight rows.

He adjusts according to water availability.

“I alter crop inputs according to how much water we have available in the field. We had to choke back on irrigation in some areas.”

Holladay plants mostly reduced tillage cotton. “It’s an evolving program,” he says. “We have to till at some point because of pivot tracks and other issues. We never stay with no-till for more than four years. We deep break the land, then try to get it back into a cover crop as fast as possible.”

He likes to rotate with wheat or plant wheat as a winter cover, terminate it in the spring, and plant cotton in the residue. He also plants cotton into old cotton stalks.

“I want a system that provides organic matter, but doesn’t use a lot of water. Managing a cover crop has become more difficult because of our rainfall issues — the need to grow a cover crop and the need to conserve water are beginning to butt heads.”

It’s a dilemma, he says.

“I want to keep a cover crop to prevent wind from blowing the soil away. I may have to lean more on cotton stalk residue, but I prefer to plant in wheat litter. A true rotation is the best bet, but this isn’t proper wheat country. We’re trying some on our lighter water areas, then planting cotton in year-old stubble.”

He’s also tried planting a wheat cover, destroying it and planting in the residue.

“I have to look at cash flow,” he says. “Lately that’s not been a big issue with wheat prices up, but historical yields for wheat in this area may mean it’s not a good option. So, we have to look at cover crops and evaluate the potential. We have to know where our water is going and what we’re getting out of it.”